1. What impact did large-scale air strikes bring to World War II?
Owing to the development of the aviation technology, World War II became the first war that used bombers in a large scale in the history of human beings. Since large-sized air strike operations were conducted against the rear of the enemy, the traditional concepts of the front and the rear became indistinct. It was possible to be attacked by the enemy troops in any locations and huge casualties were caused to common people. The main purpose of large-scale air strike was to destroy military facilities, weapon, and equipment etc. of the opponent. With upgrading of the war, it was extended to destroying general industrial production, even directly aiming at common people in order to destroy the economy and reduce number of troops that could be mobilized of the enemy. Large-scale air strikes happened at the beginning of the World War II and many cities were bombed to a large extent, of which the bombing by Luftwaffe against Rotterdam of the Netherland directly resulted in surrender of the country because the Netherland worried that continuing to resist would led to complete destroy of the whole country. In the middle stage of the war after capturing the air control, the Allies carried out extremely large scale carpet bombing against the Axes, directly completely destroying a lot of cities and causing maximum casualties of common people as well as weakening warring potential of the Axes substantially and accelerating the process of the war. To the late period of the war, the U.S. Army even developed nuclear weapons for bombing. The army used two atomic bombs to Japanese cities and finally ended the war.
2. Which one suffered from more air strikes, the Allies or the Axes?
The bombings suffered by the Axes were much more than that suffered by the Allies. At the early stage of World War II, although the Axes had advantages, bombers with extremely destructive effects had not been developed yet and carrying capabilities of bombers were relatively smaller. In this period, it was impossible to destroy enemy’s cities by bombing. In the late period of the war, the United States and Britain bombed Japanese and German cities day and night. For example, the air strike by the U.S. Army against Tokyo, the capital of Japan caused deaths of 100,000 in one day, destroying 25% of the city. The bombing by the Allies at the late stage of the war against German city Dresden almost completely destroyed the city, not to mention atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki causing significant casualties.
3. Why air strikes against common people were launched?
For the warring sides, common people of the opponent were also potential threat. Troops were recruited from common people, food and materials were produced by them too. They could also do other supporting works for the war. Therefore, attacking common people is an effective measure to directly reduce strength of the enemy. Although such practice obviously goes against morality. But for countries hoping to win in the war, morality is not taken into account. During the World War II, many warring countries had attacking operations against common people. Taking disease, crop failure caused by the war, casualties of common people were even higher than that of the army.
4. Among major warring countries, only the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa that were far away from the war zones did not suffer from large-scale air strikes in their own territories, of which Australia suffered from air strikes from the Japanese Army with some casualties.
5. Among the major cities of Germany, the damages suffered by Leipzig from air strikes were relatively smaller. Even so, 20% of the city was destroyed. In Bochum, over 80% of the city was completely destroyed.
6. Germany used the newly-developed rocket V-2 in the late period of the war to replace airplane to launch air strikes against Britain, which was the first time for human beings to attack targets of the enemy with missiles in a real war.